The current advancement and progress in the stem cell of the biology have made the culturing of the organotypic intestinal a long-term one. Also, the hepatic tissues are also derived from the pluripotent stem cells or the resident of tissue. Such kind of 3D structures is also known as organoids. These organoids are usually advanced in its structural and functional form. It is not complex and is rather traditional in the models of vitro culture. Such models are normally non-physiological and can be transformed.
The architecture, functionality, and the genetic signature which relates to the tissue can easily be recapitulated by the organoids. Hence, such cultured cells are getting popular and are gaining interest from many industries, Such as the demand of these cultured tissues is increasing in the engineering of tissue as well as in the regeneration medicines and also in the personalized medicines.
“Organoid technology can be used to reveal novel insights into basic biology such as stem cell biology, organogenesis, cellular differentiation, cell-cell interaction, and physiological functions but is also important for the future of regenerative medicine,” explained lead author Prof. Dr. Markus F. Neurath, Managing Director of the Medicine Department in Fried-rich Alexander-Universität, University Hospital in the Germany. “For studying the pathophysiology, these can be taken for studying other different human diseases such as infection, cancer etc.”
The authors highlight some of the most significant advances made over the past ten years related to gastroenterology and hepatology that have the potential to improve patient outcomes:
For committing to a biliary lineage, Hepatobiliary organoids were first represented in the year of 2007 which defined the capability of the bipotent hepatoblasts.
The results showed that the organoids had limited functionality and they lacked maturity. This, as a consequence, for the current generation of hepatobiliary organoids resulted as a proof of the principle.
Intestinal organoids were first described in 2009. These intestinal organoids can help in studying the pathophysiology of various human illnesses. These illnesses may include the diseases like gastrointestinal inflammation or it can also include the diseases like IBD which is often known as inflammatory bowel disease or celiac disease. The infections can also be a part of this like Helicobacter, Salmonella, or other diseases of genes. The drug screening and the personalized medicines for can be enabled for patient-derived organoids in order to treat the diseases of intestine.